Aeon Flux Gold (AFG)
Gold has always been an important element of the world’s financial and economic system. It is a metal precious, rare, and universally recognized for its value.
It has been used as a store of value for thousands of years and by central banks as a gold reserve. Gold, commonly seen as a safe haven asset especially in times of economic crisis, is largely recommended by companies specializing in savings and investments as an integral part of a strategy of diversified portfolio investments. To date, according to the World Gold Council, gold continues to be the favorite asset over local currencies for 2 billion individuals in countries with unstable fiat currency.
With the premise that gold is a stable resource, globally recognized and accepted, precious but all at the same time scarce and bulky, we have created with the AFG token a simple tool to possess, to exchange, and to move ownership conveniently physical gold of the highest quality from
LBMA certified investment, without the worry of cost or inconvenience of physical storage and security.
To ensure the high quality of investment gold, the purchase of this precious material will only take place on foundries that meet the stringent requirements required to hold the LBMA (London Bullion Market Association).
In this document, we present a token that aims to create a bearer of good 100% digital backed by physical gold. The token effectively represents the direct ownership of the underlying gold.
History of The Gold Market
Gold has always played an important role in trade and finance since ancient human civilizations up to the modern day. The first known civilization to use gold to create commercially used coins more than 2500 years ago, was that of the Greeks and until the end of the twentieth century, gold was the main medium of exchange underpinning most monetary systems.
In fact, in the past, given its scarcity and its role as a globally accepted store of value, this precious material was a reference for the central banks of the main economies to fix the value of their currencies.
In the past, the Bank of England was obliged to always exchange gold for a certain amount of pounds. This was known as the famous “gold standard”. It was only in 1931 when the Great Depression became the catalyst for a UK budget crisis and the Bank’s reserves were depleted which ceased the obligation of the gold standard. The example was also followed by the United States Federal Reserve. Since that time, the fiat monetary system has evolved and helped facilitate a global economy. Even though no more countries are using the gold standard today, gold continues to be used as a store of value and is still regarded by some as the purest form of money.
The value of legal tender relative to gold is widely divergent. Compared to the value of gold, the US dollar has lost 97% of its value. An ounce of gold, worth $ 38 in 1971, is now worth more than $ 1500. Other fiat currencies have further depreciated and despite these evolving dynamics, gold has retained its desirability and value. More than $ 3.5 trillion of the total gold available today is used exclusively for investment purposes, even knowing that gold is a heavy commodity e bulky that is not easily moved or easily accessible to the masses.
Physical investment gold is defined by the standards of the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA). The London Bullion Market Association (LBMA) is the professional organization behind the market spot for gold and silver in London, the heart of the global trading of precious metals.
The LBMA sets and oversees the highest standards in refining, documentation, transportation, and custody of each gold and silver bar that circulates on the official market at the spot price of gold.
BullionVault allows private investors to buy and sell bars with certified documentation by the LBMA and kept in recognized vaulted rooms. Formed in 1987 after many consultations with major bullion banks and the Bank of England, the LBMA now has 119 companies in 21 countries. By working in contact with the financial and currency markets of the City of London, the LBMA has also developed a code of conduct, the Non-Investment Products Code, approved by both the Bank of England and by the regulatory body in Great Britain, the Financial Services Authority (FSA).
The procedure for joining the LBMA is particularly strict. Among other things, the LBMA is responsible for deciding and publishing the Gold Fixing and daily of silver. The fixing is considered the official price for precious metals and is quoted in the press and in the press international media.
To date, most of the processes related to buying, selling, transferring, confirming, and settling gold assets between the parties remain largely manual, opaque, and outdated.
The market is largely reserved for qualified investors, therefore it means much of the value gold is not readily available or widely accessible.
Furthermore, the size and weight of physical gold represent a fundamental challenge for the market. Physical gold bars are difficult to transport and expensive to store. So investors find it a “bulky” asset to invest. These challenges exist for both institutions and for retail investors of gold bars.
However, there are a few ways to buy and sell investment gold: Over The Counter trading (OTC), Gold Exchange Traded Fund (ETF), gold futures, or gold retail outlets. Most investment gold is traded Over The Counter as unallocated gold. In fact, the London Over the Counter (OTC) Bullion Market is the largest spot market, Cuba about 80% of the global market share. To participate in this market, customers (almost exclusively entities) must have a direct or indirect account with one of the members of the LBMA. Basically, the market for gold clearing and settlement is operated by five clearing banks that form London Precious Metals Clearing (LPMCL).
In addition to physical and financial trading, gold has many ways of employment and use, from the production of jewelry to electronics, and is defined by investors around the world as a safe haven asset especially in times of uncertainty.
Gold is considered to be one of the most valuable commodities for people and investors around the world. Usually immune to economic fluctuations or recessions, this precious metal has one unrivaled reputation as a safe investment.
The gold market today, although considered an important financial asset, is characterized by several critical points. First, owning and trading gold can be complex.
Investors may own large quantities of investment-grade physical gold, but it is expensive to allocating and storing, not easily divisible, bulky and expensive to move, and therefore very difficult to negotiate.
Alternatively, investors can wholesale gold through financial products or in exchange-traded funds such as ETFs, which are in fact derivatives or securities but do not own real and physical goods.
Today, the gold buying and selling chain enjoys a bad reputation among the masses and the large public of individuals and professionals. There are no defined “ethical standards” and depending on the supply chain intermediary, the quality of the gold and the price vary without following quality standards and defined market prices. Furthermore, we must take into account that gold is a very good asset traded, the processes of purchasing and exchanging ownership of the asset do not yet use digital means.
These traditional solutions are inappropriate and decidedly inefficient, particularly in one economic crisis scenario.
The Solution: Aeon Flux Gold Token
The digitalization and tokenization of gold is the solution to these problems. Aeon Flux has made an innovative solution to these compromises in the gold market with the Aeon Flux Gold (AFG) token which through the blockchain, it exploits an immutable, secure, and distributed ownership register.
Aeon Flux Gold is a token that represents physical gold. The gold is kept in deposits of maximum security of trusted and respected organizations that, following the strict requirements of the LBMA standards, have a proven track record in this sector.
Basically, Aeon Flux Gold responds to the needs of the gold market by combining the indisputable advantages of owning physical gold with the speed and mobility of digital assets of blockchain technology. The token was created with the intention of putting blockchain technology at the service of the industry of gold, professionals in the sector, and the private public through the tokenization of gold.
The holders of the AFG token are guaranteed the effective ownership of the gold, kept in the foundries and deposits world’s safest coupled with the portability of a digital wallet.
The companies and foundries participating in this project have LBMA certifications and manage the flows financial and information in a transparent manner, highlighting the entire purchasing process of fundamental elements starting from the quality of the gold, to the foundry for physical archiving up to the evidence notarial deeds and inspections.
With AFG, the underlying of the physical gold can be redeemed at any time, with the convenience of digital money that can be transferred, split, and protected in a safe and simple way.
In this way and with tokenization, resources can move globally, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year.
Aeon Flux Gold Token is a tokenized version of physical gold of the highest quality by standards London Bullion Market Association (LBMA).
These investment gold bars are typically 12.5 Kilograms, each worth over $750,000 (according to today’s market prices in September 2021), and therefore generally only accessible from foundries, central banks, or international institutions.
In summary, AFGX with the tokenization of gold and exploiting blockchain technology, allows anyone to
possess fractions or sections of gold and gold bars of the highest quality LBMA.
Each AFG token represents one gram of physical gold from a specific serialized bar held in very secure vaults.
The property, on the other hand, can be divided into units up to 18 decimal places, making it possible to have lowercase letters
quantity of gold of the best quality.
AFG is built as a BEP-20 token based on Binance Smart Chain so that it has portability through Binance Smart Chain’s vast network of wallets and exchanges.
The fundamental principles on which we base the security of the project and the token are:
- Aeon Flux Gold relies on regulated financial institutions and LBMA-certified foundries where gold is allocated in qualified and safe deposits.
- Aeon Flux Gold establishes and maintains relationships with large institutions in the gold market capable of ensuring partnerships with the best suppliers of gold, vaults, and miners to ensure the underlying and the quality of the good.
- The creation of Aeon Flux Gold tokens are tokens backed by assets and underlying gold. Aeon Flux is the issuer and custodian of the AFG asset-backed token.
Our company and project vision is to advance, with the help of blockchain technology and tokenization the so-called gold industry.
The use of the innovative digitalization and tokenization technology of gold allows maintaining strict and rigid security requirements of this gold market. At the same time introducing new cutting-edge concepts to simplify and accelerate the buying, trading, and selling processes.
The goal is that our token can, in addition to accelerating and simplifying gold trading, be used as a stable and secure cryptocurrency and that can be exploited as a digital underlying for financial transactions.
This would make this precious golden resource accessible to a wider audience.
The valuation of the Aeon Flux Glod token is based on the real underlying of gold of the highest quality 999.9 / 1000 LBMA with a 1: 1 ratio (in each token there is one gram of LBMA certified gold). Therefore the company guideline is in the first phase of the project is to purchase gold only through foundries, deposits, and vaults, gold industry institutions regulated and in possession of the requirements, standards, and LBMA certifications.
The project subsequently envisages being able to acquire gold from different supply channels. Such as individuals or professionals in the gold chain, going to buy gold from other foundries LBMA certified gold buying shops or institutions where gold assets are present.
The process involves that after purchasing gold on these channels, it is delivered to a foundry authorized by Aeon Flux. The gold is blend and processed with refining so that it is of certified Quality LBMA (London Bullion Market Association), or the association that regulates world standards of the gold industry).
Furthermore, in the project, we plan to build a network of gold collection points or authorized shops in Europe and later in the world. AFG tokens will be issued only when Aeon Flux formalizes the purchase of the highest quality gold LBMA quality and de facto owns the property, stored in safe deposits.
Finally, given that the introduction of the “loan against gold” concept, in recent years has gained positions in the private finance market and where financial institutions have created financial packages dedicated with gold underlying, we expect AFG to be adopted by lending platforms cryptographic, allowing users to potentially earn interest on holding and possession of their AFG token. It might be particularly interesting for those who already hold gold.
Our business approach is based on transparency, trust, and security.
AFG token is a blockchain-based token that allows you to directly acquire ownership of gold stored in high-security warehouses. The token can be bought, sold, or exchanged through the Aeon Flux dedicated portal at any time.
Transparency: Aeon Flux following the principles underlying the blockchain technology, puts a transparent provision to customers of the information (serial number of the gold bar, location of the deposit, property receipts) which are stored immutably in the blockchain simply usable from the network.
Trust: unlike many cryptocurrency projects, behind the Aeon Flux project there are real people, who manage real and non-virtual businesses. We guarantee our customers with the AFG token an underlying real gold with a real value (both on the blockchain and in the real world).
Aeon Flux will undergo regular audits by established companies recognized as a company regulated. The Aeon Flux staff, the people participating in the project, our partners in the world are physically and really available with whom it is possible to talk and meet.
Security: Aeon Flux has entered into agreements and collaborations with foundries, gold trading institutions, and maximum security deposits regulated according to LBMA standards, wider audience.
Features of Aeon Flux Gold Token
The value of AFG:
The Aeon Flux Gold token represents the ownership of physical gold stored in rough deposit security at foundries and warehouses authorized and contracted with Aeon Flux. The holder of the token has a real right to a certain amount of the existing gold. The token is directly linked to physical gold of 99.99% purity of the highest quality LBMA. 1 token is equivalent to 1 gram of gold.
The price of the AFG token is pegged to the price of gold. AFG is a token that can be traded on the blockchain and is based on Binance Smart Chain (BSC) following the BEP-20 protocol. Being developed on BSC technology it is compatible with all wallets accepting BEP-20 tokens and with Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). All transactions work according to the rules of the Smart Contract on the Binance Smart blockchain Chain.
Like any BSC-based token, Aeon Flux Gold is available and tradable 24/7, 365 days a year. Therefore, unlike physical gold, the AFG token is always available at every moment. Obviously, the value of the AFG token is influenced by the value of the gold resources it represents.
Transparency and solvency:
Advantages of the AFG token:
- AFG is a token created on a real underlying of physical gold (with a 1: 1 ratio, one token is equivalent to 1 gram) and is held in regulated and secure deposits. To guarantee the ownership of the gold, every single ingot is marked by the serial number. The ownership of the bar is digitized in the BSC blockchain and therefore the process of moving through the simple token transfer or exchange.
- Unlike physical gold, it is possible to redeem, reallocate and exchange the AFG token in a simple and rapid. Through the dedicated Aeon Flux portal, customers can buy, exchange and redeem theirs token in the terms and conditions provided by the platform. The Aeon Flux project also plans to create affiliation and a network for the marketing of tokens around the world.
- Thanks to blockchain technology and tokenization, the AFG token, e speeded up the exchange and trading of gold, allowing the creation of new opportunities in the world trading and cryptocurrencies.
- AFG, based on a real underlying in gold, becomes an important financial asset to differentiate the Customer investment portfolio and can be used or purchased to consolidate the stability of a basket consisting mainly of gold and crypto-assets.
- Low fees apply with AFG. Transaction fees apply provided in the Binance Smart Chain blockchain and the minimum fees related to deposit costs the creation/destruction of tokens.
- AFG operating on the decentralized blockchain of Binance Smart Chain keeps the nature and the value of gold by exploiting the intrinsic functionality of technology, where no one can control the market and access to gold.
AFG tokens are created and destroyed by Aeon Flux, a regulated Estonian company, as needed and are directly related to the purchase of physical gold. The token value will be published on the dedicated portal www.AFG.afluxcoin.com. Aeon Flux charges fees for creating and destroying the tokens they will post on www.AFG.afluxcoin.com.
AFG will be listed on cryptocurrency exchanges globally and will be traded directly against other cryptocurrencies or fiat coins. Individuals who hold physical gold may be interested in transferring their ownership to AFG, enjoying the enormous benefits deriving from tokenization, speeding up, and simplifying the sale.
The stacking plans will be defined subsequently and in line with the price of the gold market. The investor can:
a) Keep the tokens with the intent of making a capital gain.
b) Store the tokens with the same intent and also stake your tokens, which undertake not to sell them, blocking them in the Aeon Flux wallet and receiving an extra return in addition to the capital gain generated by the token.
c) Request a refund of your tokens on the Aeon Flux platform or sell them through an exchange.
Smart Contract & Aeon Flux Backend:
The Aeon Flux Smart Contract and Backend system manages the flow of the gold token. Let’s see below how Smart Contract & Backend (hereinafter SC & BE) interact in the various phases:
1) Token creation
- Aeon Flux buys LBMA gold.
- An oracle informs the SC that the purchase was made by sending the information of ownership and custody of the gold: SKU gold bar, serial number of the ingot, chain of custody (Vendor, Custodian, Auditor), purchase receipt, deposit receipt, fees of deposit.
- Aeon Flux proceeds with the minting of tokens based on the amount of gold purchased, whereas 1 token corresponds to 1 gram of quality gold according to LBMA standards.
- The SC proceeds with the creation of the tokens following the LBMA + GOLD PURCHASE VALUE rule COSTS / QUANTITY OF LBMA GOLD PURCHASED.
- An oracle communicates to the SC the address of the Aeon Flux account and the information that the funds for the purchase have been correctly paid.
2) Token purchase
- The investor makes the payment
- Aeon Flux proceeds with the assignment of the token
- An oracle communicates to the SC the investor’s address and the information that the funds were properly paid.
3) Token Sale
- The BE receives the request for sale from the investor.
- Case 1 – buyer presence: the BE, having verified the presence of a willing investor upon purchase, proceeds with liquidating the seller and providing the new investor with the tokens due.
- Case 2 – buyer absence: the BE, having verified that there are no new buyers, proceeds by liquidating the funds and gold and liquidating the seller; the SC will burn the investor’s tokens.
When the investor proceeds with the staking of their tokens, Aeon Flux can opt for a longer-term strategy by structuring operations that allow better performance; this difference in earnings will be paid to investors in the form of additional tokens.
- The BE calculates the difference between the yield of tokens in staking and the yield of tokens not in staking will balance the value using the yield by providing the information to the SC (Smart Contract).
- The SC will create the Tokens and distribute them in proportion to the investors who have the Tokens in Staking.
Binance Smart Chain (BSC) is a blockchain operating in parallel with Binance Chain.
In essence, both blockchains operate side by side. BSC is not a layer scaling solution two or off-chain, but an independent blockchain that can also work if Binance Chain went offline. That said, both systems bear a strong design similarity.
Unlike the latter, Binance Smart Chain offers smart contract functionality and compatibility with the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). Since BSC is compatible with EVM, for users, it means that essential applications such as MetaMask can be easily configured to work with BSC.
Binance Smart Chain uses a Proof-of-Stake consensus algorithm implemented on a Proof model of Staked Authority (or PoSA), where BNB token holders staking BNB becoming validators, remunerated by transaction fees.
Thanks to the flexibility offered by Binance Smart Chain, BSC native or non-native assets can be employed in the decentralized finance sector.
BEP 20 Standard:
BEP-20 is a token standard on Binance Smart Chain that provides the functionality:
- Interoperability: Use compatible tokens on different blockchains.
- Tokenization: Making tokens of other blockchains available on BSC by converting them (Peg).
- Standardization: Exchange BEP-2 tokens for BEP-20 equivalents.
- Efficiency: network fees as low as $ 0.05 and a block time of just 3 seconds.
All LBMA gold bars are identified by a serial number and weight. AFG represents the ownership fractional of the corresponding gold bars.
If customers are not assigned ownership of an entire gold bar, they will benefit from one the proportional share of that bar as determined by AFG token holdings.
Generally, through the purchase and sale of AFG tokens, given that fractions of ingots are allocated gold, an attempt will be made to assign the fractions of the same ingot to the same customer. However, given the variable of exchanges, a customer might hold fractions in different gold bars.
Aeon Flux can reassign AFG tokens from time to time to different bars, evaluating any transfers of AFG tokens, new exchanges, conversions, and other trading activities.
New tokens will be created regularly. To define a convenient and in line with the token price market, a specific quantity of gold will be purchased (basically at least 1 kilogram) before the start of new token issuance. All gold purchased will be of the highest quality 100% certified 999.9 LBMA.
Once our authorized and certified partner confirms that the gold has been deposited and allocated purchased, we begin the minting process to issue 1 token for each gram of gold stored.
The total supply of the tokens, and therefore the amount of gold deposited, can be requested using the standards provided by the Binance Smart Chain of the BEP-20 token. It is our will to archive all paper records issued by our partner on the blockchain.
If gold is withdrawn from the deposit, a “burn process” will be initiated, which translates into the removal of tokens relative to the amount burned. This complies with the standard BEP-20 token proposal which is officially accepted by the Binance Smart Chain blockchain.
To maintain transparency, we will post on the AFG site or send a new message on an Aeon Flux platform. In this way, every time a “burn” process occurs, the customer and/or the owner of the tokens will be able to check the availability of the tokens, monitoring the process itself.
As commonly expected, in blockchain and tokenization projects, Aeon Flux Gold also applies commissions on certain transactions. Right away:
- Subscription and redemption fees, applied when the investor buy-sells the token on the Aeon Flux platform. *
- Management fees, applied periodically on the investment made by the investor in tokens by Aeon Flux Gold. **
* costs imposed by the Binance network, Aeon Flux will not charge additional costs to the investor
** The management fee is variable and written for each contract Hence, each blockchain transaction will incur a fee dictated by the BSC network.
These fees will be used to cover storage and insurance costs of the underlying gold and for
burn AFG tokens.
Aeon Flux will never change the commission rate without notice as we consider transparency
a cornerstone of our project. The commission rate will likely change only infrequently.
AFG Token Metrics
The Aeon Flux Gold token includes the following metrics:
- EXTENDED NAME: Aeon Flux Gold
- ABBREVIATION: AFG
- DECIMALS: 12
- TECHNOLOGY: Binance Smart Chain
- MAX SUPPLY: Unlimited
- TOTAL SUPPLY: Total tokens issued
- CIRCULATING SUPPLY: Tokens issued and circulating on the market
- AEON RESERVE: Tokens issued and held by Aeon Flux
The relationships between the aforementioned variables are:
- MAX SUPPLY = TOTAL SUPPLY + POTENTIAL FUTURE EMISSIONS
- TOTAL SUPPLY = CIRCULATING SUPPLY + AEON RESERVE
The mathematical operations suitable for calculating the useful values are:
- V = (VAL GLD + COS) / SUPPLY
- V Value of an Aeon Flux Gold token
- VAL GLD Purchase value of LBMA gold denominated in dollars
- COS LBMA gold management costs for storage, insurance, inspections
- SUPPLY Total number of grams of LBMA gold purchased
As for the SUPPLY, we will have to define the formula based on the gold supply channel.
Directly from foundries and LBMA certified financial institutions.
- SUPPLY = VAL GLD / GR
- SUPPLY Number of tokens issued
- VAL GLD Value of LBMA gold purchased * – GR Number of grams of gold purchased
The value of high-quality LBMA gold varies according to quantity, market, and agreements commercial. It is possible to buy LBMA gold in different denominations such as 0.1Kg, 0.25Kg, 0.5Kg, 1 Kg, and other denominations superior.
To simplify the Aeon Flux process, it will tend to purchase 1 kg denominations and therefore will be issued 1000 tokens corresponding to 1000 grams of LBMA gold. However, based on commercial needs and finances, Aeon Flux will also be able to purchase gold in denominations smaller or larger than 1 Kg.
If the purchase takes place on different supply channels or from intermediaries of the gold industry, yes will proceed, to guarantee the quality of the goods, with the transport to the LBMA-certified foundry authorized by Aeon Flux to proceed with the smelting and refining of gold.
- SUPPLY = (VAL GLD + COS + RAF) / SUPPLY
- SUPPLY Number of tokens issued.
- VAL GLD Value of LBMA gold purchased *
- RAF Costs of transport and refining of gold to LBMA. – COS Number of grams of gold purchased
In these gold supply channels, the denominations may be even lower than 0.1Kg, 0.25Kg, or 0.5Kg.
- T = C / V
- T Number of tokens corresponding to a certain capital.
- C Capital denominated in dollars paid by the investor.
- V Value of an Aeon Flux Gold token.
As a regulated broadcaster, Aeon Flux needs technical planning and implementation that gives the ability to update the token so that you can:
- Extend the system with new features.
- Resolve any vulnerabilities.
- Improve the system and optimize its operational efficiency.
Aeon Flux’s AFG token system implements the following security features:
- Offline Keys: Keys that approve high-risk actions, such as token generation or destruction with the consequent movement of the underlying assets, are stored offline in the cold storage owner of Aeon Flux.
- Generation of keys: the keys are generated through specific security procedures, archived, and managed by integrated hardware safety modules.
- Double check (multi-signature): High-risk actions require approval from at least two signatories. We use a signature system M of N, so that already with M = 2 we obtain both safety and tolerance to breakdowns.
External inspection by the inspector and six-monthly certification:
Control and inspection will be carried out every six months by an external inspector appointed by Aeon Flux on the quality and quantity of gold at the foundry deposit to ensure bookkeeping.
The inspection will be carried out by authorized and certified gold verification companies, with proven ability in can provide a wide range of precious metal inspection, sampling, and testing services.
Each gold bar will be rigorously tested with precision tools. The measurements used ultrasonic measuring instruments (UTM) and density meters.
KYC and AML:
This whitepaper provides an overview of the business and technology behind the Aeon Flux Gold Token (AFG) project. The information shared in this whitepaper is not all-inclusive or complete and the whitepaper is in no way intended to create or implement any element of a contractual relationship. All rights and obligations of all parties involved are defined exclusively by the General Terms and Conditions (T&C) available here: www.Afluxcoin.com]